Dido building Carthage

Turner so loved this painting, that he requested his body be wrapped in the canvas upon his death. Turners executer of his will Francis Chantry pointed out to Turner that as soon as you are buried I will see you taken up and unrolled. The will was altered the painting now hangs in the National Gallery, London. By request from Turner, it’s now next to a seaport view by Claude in the wonderful room 15.

about 800 BC the Phoenicians established Carthage on the edge of a region in North Africa that is now Tunisia. The city became the commercial center of the western Mediterranean and retained that position until overthrown by Rome.

According to tradition, Queen Dido founded Carthage after she fled from Tyre. The inhabitants there agreed to give her as much land as she could encompass with a single oxhide. By cutting the hide into thin strips, Dido was able to enclose a large area. It was near Carthage, according to Virgil’s ‚Aeneid’, that Aeneas was shipwrecked (see Aeneas).

Carthage lay on a bay. Its Phoenician settlers were seafarers and traders. Aided by slave labor they built wharves, markets, and factories. Carthage grew rich and strong, with colonies in North Africa, in Spain, and on the Mediterranean islands.

Powerful Rome, over a period of a hundred years, defeated Carthage in the Punic Wars. The first, fought in Sicily from 264 to 241 BC, cost Carthage Sicily and a large indemnity.

In the second Punic War, from 218 to 201 BC, the general Hannibal crossed Spain and southern France with his war elephants and climbed over the Alps, an almost unbelievable exploit, to defeat the Romans at Cannae. After he was recalled to Africa, he lost at Zama, and Carthage was forced to withdraw from Spain. (See also Hannibal.)

Rome won the third Punic War, fought from 149 to 146 BC, in spite of a heroic resistance in which Carthaginian women cut off their hair to provide bowstrings for the catapults. Carthage was burned.

The emperor Augustus later built a new city on the site. This became a Roman seat of government in Africa. When the Vandals overran the region, Carthage was made their capital. It was destroyed again after its capture in AD 647 by the Arabs.

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on the edge of a region in North Africa that is now Tunisia. The city became the commercial center of the western Mediterranean and retained that position until overthrown by Rome.

According to tradition, Queen Dido founded Carthage after she fled from Tyre. The inhabitants there agreed to give her as much land as she could encompass with a single oxhide. By cutting the hide into thin strips, Dido was able to enclose a large area. It was near Carthage, according to Virgil’s ‚Aeneid’, that Aeneas was shipwrecked (see Aeneas).

The Battle of Trafalgar

This painting is the largest that Turner ever painted and is his only Royal commission. The work was ordered by King George IV to hang in St James’s Palace alongside de Loutherbourg’s The Glorious First of June, and also to complement two further battle scenes of Vittoria and Waterloo by Turner’s friend George Jones. The commission itself was probably obtained through Sir Thomas Lawrence the President of the Royal Academy. In order to garner factual material on the ships that had participated in the battle, Turner borrowed sketches from the marine painter J.C. Schetky, although he already possessed studies of Nelson’s flagship, the Victory, which he had obtained after Nelson’s body was returned home in I805. When the work went on view in St James’s Palace Turner was severely criticized for having made a number of errors in the rigging of the various ships and other nautical details, and he spent some eleven days altering the work to meet those criticisms, including lowering the victory in the water, for Schetky had sketched the ship when she was unladen in Portsmouth harbour. Yet even after meeting these criticisms the painting continued to mystify Turner’s very literal-minded naval contemporaries (including King William IV), principally because the artist had followed the demands of the theory of poetic painting to evade the limitations of time. As a result, we see events that took place hours apart, such as the signaling of the last word from Nelson’s famous telegraphic message `England expects every man to do his duty’ which had gone up around midday, alongside the collapse of the top-mizzenmast of the victory which occurred at 1 pm, the Achille on fire off the Victory which took place late in the afternoon, and the Redoubtable sinking in front of the Victory which did not happen until the following night (and even then it sank elsewhere). Naturally, these manipulations of the constraints of time were not welcomed by an audience who wanted `the facts, the facts and nothing but the facts’; well might Turner have responded by citing Michelangelo’s riposte to a critic of one of his effigies that it looked nothing like the person it was meant to portray: ‚Well, in a thousand years time nobody will know the difference’.

The foreground filled with carnage might not have helped public acceptance of the work either, for such anti-war sentiments would not have been popular with most naval viewers. The low viewpoint makes the men-of-war tower up over us, and their vast billowing sails serve to express the immense forces unleashed by war.

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J.M.W.Turner – Switzerland

The above watercolour was painted when he returned to England. The trees are excellent, and the geological features are very well drawn, so is the behavior of the water, where it forms into a fine spray at the foot of the waterfall.

The dramatic scenery and weather effects of the Alps gave entirely new meaning to Turner’s concept of the ‚Sublime’ . His exploration of the Alps, villages and passes of Switzerland enriched his imagination and upon return to his England he made the fine watercolours above among many others.

After the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, Turner was able to travel abroad for the first time. He experienced the Alps, and on his way there saw the huge numbers of art treasures which Napoleon had amassed in Paris.

SWITZERLAND is a small European country known for its beautiful, snow-capped mountains and freedom-loving people. The Alps and the Jura Mountains cover more than half of Switzerland. But most of the Swiss people live on a plateau that extends across the middle of the country between the two mountain ranges. In this region are most of Switzerland’s industries and its richest farmlands. Switzerland’s capital, Bern, and largest city, Zurich, are also there.

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Turner in Holland

The scene depicted from a very low viewpoint, The Swan packet-boat immobile until the turn of the ebb tide, so the villagers from shore offer fresh victuals to the passengers, as is the custom. The Morning Chronicle (May1818) quotes” The Dort was considered one of the most magnificent pictures ever exhibited, and does honors to the age”. The painting was brought by one of Turner’s patrons Walter Fawkes. Now at Yale Centre for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection.

He must be a painter of strength of nature, there was no beauty elsewhere than in that; he must paint also the labour and sorrow and passing away of man: this was the great human truth visible to him. . . . Labour; by sea and land, in the field and city, at forge and furnace, helm and plough. No pastoral indolence nor classic pride shall stand between him and the troubling of the world; still less between him and the toil of his county,- blind, tormented, unwearied, marvelous England.

Sir Joshua Reynolds, President of the Royal Academy when Turner was first a member, declared that painters should go to the Dutch School to learn the art of paintings as they would go to grammar school to learn languages.

Turners first trip abroad in 1802 was to study Dutch art at the Louvre in Paris where Napoleon had acquired much treasure from his wars. Turner was also to travel in the steps of Napoleon in 1817, from which he later exhibited the anti-war painting ‚The Fields of Waterloo’.

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When Turner was shown a print by the Dutch artist Van de Velde, he said ‚that made me a painter’. During his travels to Holland in 1817, 1825, 1840/41/42, Turner made more than 600 drawings. Some for later development into the wonderful marine paintings we have today.

J.M.W.Turner in Venice

Letter from Thomas Uwins dated 3 February 1829. I have fortunately met with a good-tempered, funny, little, elderly gentleman, who will probably be my traveling companion throughout the journey. He is continually popping his head out of the window to sketch whatever strikes his fancy, and became quite angry because the conductor would not wait for him whilst he took a sunrise view of Macerata. ‚Dawn the fellow!’ says he. ‚He has no feeling.’. . . He speaks but a few words of Italian, about as much French, which two languages he jumbles together most amusingly. His good temper, however, carries him though all his troubles. I am sure you would love him for his indefatigability in his favorite pursuit. From his conversations he is evidently near kin to, if not absolutely, an artist. Probably you may know something of him. The name on his truck is, J.M.W. Turner!

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Venice, Italy, consists of 120 islands situated on the Adriatic Sea, which make it a unique city with canals rather than roads. It uses boats instead of cars. Their taxi’s and lorries are also boats.

Wonderful architecture painted in lovely colours, picturesque bridges and gondolas make this the most visited city in the world. The Italian name is Venizia and has been an important trading port since 800 A.D.

400 bridges cross the canals and link the main islands of Venice. Narrow alleyways called calli run between the buildings. The Grand Canal, the city’s main canal, winds through the centre of Venice. Marble and stone palaces built between the 1100’s and 1800’s stand along both sides of the Grand Canal. The Rialto Bridge crosses the canal in the heart of the city, this is the Merceria district where many good shop are among the narrow calli.

Saint Mark’s Square is the centre of activity in Venice. The Basilica of Saint Mark, is an outstanding examples of Byzantine architecture. Buildings in the Renaissance style of architecture are along the other three sides of the square. Cafes in front of these buildings are expensive but favored meeting places for tourists. The Doges’ Palace, featured in many paintings, was built as a residence for early Venetian rulers.

Superb artworks may be seen throughout Venice. The Academy of Fine Arts has an wonderful collection of paintings, including works by such Venetian masters as Titian and Tintoretto. The largest theatre in Venice, the Fenice, presents operas and plays. Many students attend Venice’s schools of art, architecture, and music.

During winter storms, floodwaters sweep through the islands, damaging buildings. Water is also weakening the foundations of Venice’s buildings, air pollution is eroding the buildings, as well as many of the city’s outdoor art treasures. Venice was sinking an average of about (5 millimeters) yearly until the mid-1970’s resulting from the removal of underground water for use by industries. The Italian government restricted the use of water from the city’s underground wells. Water pressure then built up under the islands, and the city stopped sinking.

The Fighting Temeraire, tugged to her Last Berth to be broken

When this painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy in I839 its title was accompanied in the catalogue by these lines from Thomas Campbell’s `Ye Mariners of England’

The flag which braved the battle and the breeze,
No longer owns her.

The passing of the age of sail into steam-ships, iron vessels, indeed the industrial revolution, coincided with great artist like Turner and John Constable painting both the old idyllic landscape with castles, abbeys and scenes of the past age alongside steam trains, boats and industrial changes as exciting them days as computer in our time.

The pinnacle of Constables paintings ‚The Haywain’ is set undeniably in the past. Turner’s ‚The Fighting Temeraire’ shows us the passing away of that time. A grand forty year old champion of the Battle of Trafalgar, being towed away to it’s last berth by a modern steam tug bellowing smoke.

Turner was seen on board a Margate steamer sketching the passage of the Temeraire upriver to Beatson’s ship breaking yard at Rotherhithe on 6 September I838, although what he saw and what he painted are two different things. Thus we know from contemporary newspaper reports that the Temeraire was towed by two tugs, and another observer of the towing later testified that the painter invented the spectacular sunset. The Temeraire glorified for the last time by Turner’s brushes, for in reality she is stripped of her masts, sail and rigging, all guns and useful parts are removed by the Admiralty as spares. The ship is to be stripped of it’s oak wood at the breaker’s yard, the copper sold back to the Admiralty for £3000, the breaker having paid around £5500 for the hull.

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The Temeraire that would have made a marvelous museum piece in itself, is now left the the nation in the National Gallery as a painting. Thanks to Turner the ship that saved the ‚Victory’ at the Battle of Trafalgar is still remembered. The importance of the painting realized by Turner who never sold ‚His Darling’.

J.M.W.Turner a Chronology

1775 Born on 23 April (St George’s Day) at 21 Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, London. The son of William Turner, a barber & wig maker.
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1787 Takes up drawing and painting watercolour for first time, later his father sells then in his shop.
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1789-90 Goes to study under Thomas Malton. Admitted to Royal Academy School, (RA) exhibits his first watercolour, The Archbishop’s Palace, Lambeth.
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1790 Tours the West Country
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1793 The Society of Arts Awards Turner the „Greater Silver Pallet”, meets and works with life time friend Thomas Girtin: goes to South Wales to draw.
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1794 Turner become famous as a topographical draughtsman, producing original pictures for engravings.
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1795 Tours southern England and south Wales, and visits Isle of Wight.
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1796 Exhibits the first oil painting along with 10 watercolours at the RA.
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1799 Studies Claude Lorrain the artist, which has a great effect on his early style. Elected Associate Member of Royal Academy. Moves into Harley Street with Sarah Danby by her has two daughters.
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1800 Publishes poetry intended to accompany exhibits at RA.
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1801 Tours Scotland, returns via Lake District.
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1802 Elected full member of RA at the young age of 27. Travels to France and Switzerland.
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1804 Sets up a gallery at his Harley Street home. Death of mother after long illness.
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1805 First exhibition in his own gallery, London
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1807 Appointed Professor of Perspective at RA, often uses letters after his Name (P.P.) Publishes part 1 of Liber Studiorum. Buys Building plot at Twickenham.
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1809 First of many visits to Petworth, the seat of Lord Egremont, one of Turner patron.
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1810 Moves to 47 Queen Ann Street West, Summer visit to Farnley Hall
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1811 First lecture as professor at Royal Academy. Visits Italy.
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1814 Founder member of Artist General Benevolent Institution, supports this for many years.
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1815 End of war with France, so able to travel once again in Europe.
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1815 Paints ‚Dido Building Carthage’ refuses five thousand guineas ( a huge sum of money then) never sells this painting, finally bequeathed it to the British Nation on his death.
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1817 Summer tour of Netherlands and Rhine, returns and stays at Rady Castle, then on to friend Walter Fawkes at Farnley.
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1819 Trip to Italy, the wonderful light here has an amazing effect on Turner’s colours. Does around 25 sketches a day during his 2 month stay, two main paintings from this trip ‚Looking East from the Guidecca, Sunrise’ and ‚San Giorgio Maggiore’, which must be adjudged as masterpieces.
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1820 Moves his gallery to Queen Ann Street after working to enlarge and build new gallery.
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1822 Goes to Edinburgh for the State Visit of George 1V.
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1823 Commissioned to paint The Battle of Trafalgar for St James’s Palace; this completed by May 1824.
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1824 The National Gallery was established, and Turner was on the committee to decide where to house it- The National Gallery Trafalgar Square, London being the chosen place.
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1825 Toured Holland, the Rhine, and Belgium. Death of true friend Walter Fawkes on October 25th.
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1828 Takes his last class at the RA, ( they were not very successful anyway, sometimes his loyal father was the total audience).
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1825 Tour of Holland, Germany and Belgium. Death of friend Walter Falkes.
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1829 Death of father. Exhibits England and Wales series of watercolours in London. Visits France.
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1831 Tour of Scotland. Revises his Will as he’s in poor health during the year.
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1832 Visits Paris, meets with artist Delacroix.
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1834 Tours Meuse, Moselle and the Rhine.Spend time with Sophia Booth at Margate.
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1836 Tours France, Switzerland and Val d’Aosta
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1837 Death of patron Lord Egremond. Resigns as Professor of Perspective at the RA
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1839 Paints „The Fighting Tameraire” age 64.
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1840 He met the critic and artist John Ruskin, who became the great champion of his work. Visits Venice
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1841 Visits Switzerland for the first of three visits over the next three years.
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1844 Meets Charles Dickens. Visits Switzerland, Heidelberg, and the Rhine.
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1845 Acting President of Royal Academy, Tours France
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1846 Rents lodgings at Cheyne Walk, Chelsea and lives rest of his life as a recluse under pseudonym of Admiral Booth.
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1848 Increasing Infirmity. Revises his Will.
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1850 Last exhibition at the Royal Academy.
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1851 December 19, Turner dies in Chelsea home. Buried in St Paul’s Cathedral. Bequeaths 19,000 works to Nation.

Artist J.M.W.Turner 1775 – 1851

English landscape artist J.M.W.Turner, a Londoner born and bred, went to the Royal Academy School of art when he was only 15 years old. One year later his picture was accepted in the Summer Exhibition of 1790. Elected an Associate of the Academy, which was very supportive of his free art style that evolved after his study of the Classic artist movement of old Master painters. Turner studied the science of light and colour, the theory in particular that yellow was closest colour to the production of white light in painting. Amongst his contemporaries he was a unique artist, both in freeing himself from all past artist traditions and art movements. He was to open the way for a visionary anticipation of modern painting.

This launch collection is of a handful of treasures from The Department of Prints and Drawings.

The British Museum’s huge collection of over 2 million artworks is the finest in the world and the result of centuries of bequest and acquisition.

The original paper artworks are very fragile: the media can be easily damaged and they are light sensitive. For these reasons they must be carefully conserved and cannot be put on permanent display. Limited edition facsimile print at artist’s original size in numbered edition of 350.

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Entrepreneurial Spirit

The object of this section is to provide publicity to those affected by MS that find themselves forced into a dramatic career shift. Despite this they will have had the courage and strength to look to new challenges, learn new skills or perhaps even develop an old hobby into a means of earning a living. The author Pat Dwyer gets this off the ground with reviews and details of his second book “Bright Clouds”

The object of this section is to provide publicity to those affected by MS that find themselves forced into a dramatic career shift. Despite this they will have had the courage and strength to look to new challenges, learn new skills or perhaps even develop an old hobby into a means of earning a living. The author Pat Dwyer gets this off the ground with reviews and details of his second book “Bright Clouds”

An outline of how this will operate

We’ve secured the name www.msrcsites.co.uk along with this we have tons of web space and unlimited “sub domains” A sub domain would look like www.yourname.msrcsites.co.uk you will decide what you want to replace the “yourname” part with. This will then give you your own place on the www.

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We (well me) will set up your name, put the site together and load it onto the net. There’s a few sites on the “Friends of MSRC page” for you to get an idea of what your site could look like A front page, a Gallery that consists of thumbnails of your photo’s and the enlargements. The third page can be, within reason, whatever you like. The styles section on this site is to enable you to chose what you would like the outline of your site to look like.